Ice cream is a frozen food and generally served as a chilled product. It is made from dairy products such as milk and cream (or substituted ingredients) combined with fruits or other ingredients and flavors and sweetened with sucrose, corn syrup, cane sugar, beet sugar, and other sweeteners.
It is usually eaten as a snack or frozen dessert by all ages of people. In the past years ice cream was originally called iced cream or cream ice. It was a luxury reserved for special occasions before the development of modern refrigeration. The mixture is stirred slowly to incorporate air spaces, while cooling below the freezing point of water, to prevent large ice crystals from forming, which results in a smoothly-textured ice cream. The increase in temperature makes it more malleable.
The meaning of the phrase “ice cream” varies from one country to another. In the United States, the phrase “ice cream” applies only to a specific variety, and most governments regulate the commercial use of the various terms according to the relative quantities of the main ingredients. In other countries, like Italy and Argentina, it is used for all variants.
Ice cream was invented in China about 200 BC when a milk and rice mixture was frozen by packing it into snow. The Chinese may be credited with inventing a device to make sorbets and ice cream. They poured a mixture of ice and saltpeter over the exteriors of containers filled with syrup so that salt raises the boiling-point of water; it bringing the mixture below the freezing point of pure water.
When we speak about Arab Countries, Arabs used milk as a key ingredient in the production of ice cream and sweetened it with sugar in spite of fruit juices. It was flavored with rosewater, dried fruits and nuts. In 400 BC, the Persians invented a special chilled food, consists of rose water and vermicelli, which was served to royalty during hot summers. To flavor, such ice was mixed with fruits, saffron and other flavorings.
In Europe, Ice cream has been introduced by Italian duchess Catherine de’ Medici in the 16th century. When she married the Duke of Orléans (Henry II of France) in 1533, she is said to have brought with her to France some Italian chefs who had recipes for flavored ices. She delighted her guests with ice cream at formal dinners and fed it to her son, Henry III. One hundred years later, Charles I of England was supposedly so impressed by the “frozen snow” that he offered his own ice cream maker a lifetime pension in return for keeping the formula secret, so that ice cream could be a royal prerogative. So the recipes were kept secret, and were first revealed in French for flavored ices in 1674. Recipes for “sorbetti” saw publication in the 1694. The recipes for flavored ices begin to appear in François Massialot’s which was result in a coarse, pebbly texture. However, Latini claims that the results of his recipes should have the fine consistency of sugar and snow.
Recipe of Ice cream was first become visible in 1718 in England, make public by Mrs. Mary Eales’s Receipts in London. The year 1768 saw the publication of L’Art de Bien Faire les Glaces d’Office by M. Emy, a cookbook devoted entirely to recipes for flavoured ices and ice cream.
Before the invention of modern refrigeration in the early 20th century, ice cream was mostly a treat reserved for special occasions. It was made by cutting the ice from lakes and ponds during the winter snowy season and stored in holes in the ground, or in wood-frame or brick ice houses, insulated by straw. Many farmers and plantation owners cut and stored ice in the winter for use in the summer. Frederic Tudor of Boston turned ice harvesting and shipping into a big business, cutting ice in New England and shipping it around the world.
The method in which ice cream was made by hand in a large bowl placed inside a tub filled with ice and salt was called the “pot-freezer method”. Another method for making ice cream, “The hand-cranked churn”, was introduced in 1843 by Nancy Johnson. Such method produced smoother ice cream than the pot freezer method more rapidly. Many inventors patented improvements on Johnson’s design.
In Europe and early America, ice cream was made and sold by small businesses, mostly confectioners and caterers. Jacob Fussell of Baltimore, Maryland was the first to manufacture ice cream on a large scale. Fussell built his first ice cream factory in 1851. Two years later, he established the first large-scale commercial ice cream plant in Baltimore and soon he opened factories in many other cities. He taught the business to others, who operated their own plants. Mass production reduced the cost of ice cream and added to its popularity.
The development of industrial refrigeration during the 1870s eliminated the need to cut and store natural ice. Gradually, when the continuous-process freezer was perfected in 1926, commercial mass production of ice cream and the birth of the modern ice cream industry were underway.
In the present era, the most common method for producing ice cream at home is to use an ice cream maker. It is an electrical device that churns the ice cream mixture while cooled inside a household freezer, or using a solution of pre-frozen salt and water, which gradually melts while the ice cream freezes.
The ideal composition for an ice cream is as follows:
• The minimum fat content is 10% and premium ice creams can contain as much as 16% milk fat
• 9-12% milk solids-not-fat. This component known as the serum solids contains the proteins (caseins and whey proteins) and carbohydrates (lactose) found in milk.
• 12-16% sweeteners (usually a combination of sucrose and glucose-based corn syrup sweeteners).
• 0.2-0.5% stabilizers and emulsifiers
• 55% to 64% water, which comes from the milk or other ingredients.
These percentages are by weight, either in the mix or in the frozen ice cream. However, when frozen, about one half of the volume of ice cream is air.
New flavors of ice cream are produced day by day. But as a research says, Chocolate and vanilla are more popular by ice-cream lovers.